Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)

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About a disease

Description

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease that reduces blood flow through the coronary arteries, which are the main source of blood supply to the heart muscle. Reduced coronary perfusion is accompanied by a sharp lack of oxygen in the areas of the myocardium that are filled with blood from the affected blood vessel. This condition is called ischemia-a disease that eventually leads to the death (necrosis) of heart tissue.

Symptoms

The first symptoms of coronary heart disease include the following signs:

– shortness of breath

– arrhythmia-the appearance of a rapid heartbeat, interruptions in the work of the heart muscle;

– hypertension-manifests itself in sharp jumps and an increase in blood pressure;

– angina of tension-characterized by pressure, chest pain;

Diagnostics

– Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

– Load testing

– Heart ultrasound (Echocardiography)

– Coronary angiography

– Thorax organs X-Ray

Treatment

To increase the coronary blood flow in IHD, off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery is performed – an operation that allows to restore blood flow in the arteries of the heart by bypassing the place of narrowing of the coronary vessel with the help of shunts (vascular prostheses). The operation can be performed either on a working heart, or under artificial blood circulation, depending on the patient’s condition.

Percutaneous сoronary interventionis a minimally invasive procedure that dilates the coronary arteries. The procedure consists of inserting a hollow catheter equipped with a balloon into the vascular bed and into the coronary artery. The catheter advances under x-ray control. When the catheter reaches the narrowed artery, the balloon inflates. Due to the pressure of the balloon, partial destruction of atherosclerotic plaques occurs, increasing the lumen of the vessel and restoring blood flow through it. After the control images are taken, the stenting of the coronary artery is performed – a stent is inserted (a compressed spring, for which a special alloy is used). The stent is straightened in the artery, which results in the expansion of the vessel diameter and normalization of blood flow.

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