Uterine Myoma

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About a disease

Description

The number of diagnoses of uterine myoma accounts for 12-25 % of the total number of gynaecological diseases. Disappointing statistics put this pathology at the forefront of gynaecological diseases. The risk group is women after 40 years old, who experience age-related changes in their bodies. Fortunately, medical technology is now well advanced, and this diagnosis does not sound as frightening as it was 15 years ago.

Symptoms

Pain in the womb

Difficulty in urinating

Pain of defecation

Pain during intercourse

Painful menstruation with high secretions

Diagnostics

The main method of diagnosing uterine myoma is ultrasound (3D/4D technology) using transvaginal and transabdominal sensors. The use of color Doppler mapping (VDC) makes it possible to assess the quality and quantity of blood flow of myoma nodes.

Magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) is used to specify the localization, quantity, blood supply, structural changes of the myoma nodes, their location relative to neighbouring organs and the planning of radiosurgery treatment.

Treatment

The choice of the treatment method depends on many aspects: the age of the patient, her desire to realize reproductive function, the clinical and morphological features of the pathological process, the presence of concomitant somatic and gynecological diseases, as well as the patient’s personal preference for a particular treatment method.

Uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). In the process of UFE, special balls – embolae – are introduced through the catheter into the uterine arteries. They are made of a special medical polymer and have a certain size with the help of which the blood flow to the myoma closes. After UFE, the growth and size of the myoma gradually begins to decrease.

Laparoscopic hysterectomy. If myoma is detected during menopause, as a rule, organ-preserving treatment is not used, the uterus is removed completely with the cervix, usually (but not always) with preservation of the ovaries. The operation is carried out minimally invasively, endovideoscopically through small incisions on the peritoneum. Advantages: low trauma, short hospital period, reduced service life, cosmetic effect and less risk of postoperative complications.

Hysteroscopic myomectomy is performed by introducing a special chamber and loop into the uterine cavity through the vagina, with which myoma is cut.

During focused ultrasound surgery, the node is remotely heated and coagulated, and with the help of MRI, the degree of heating and accuracy of the procedure are monitored. As a rule, FUSE-MRI is performed for patients from premenopausal age with 1-3 myomatous nodes. In fact, this procedure is not an operational intervention, on the same day, or the next day the patient can be discharged.

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