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About the clinic: National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology was established as the Union Clinical Scientific-Research Institute for Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1944, as an important part of the policy of demographic revival of the country after the World War II, and since then is the leading scientific, medical and academic institution of Russia in the fields of obstetrics, gynecology, perinatology and reproductology. The Center is the major basis for development and implementation of governmental programs on maternal and child healthcare; producer of the clinical protocols, guidelines and standards of care; coordinator of integration of regional medical facilities.
About the clinic: I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University) is the top medical university in Russia. Its history begins in 1758 as the medical faculty at Imperial Moscow University. For over two centuries Sechenov University has been a pioneer in the Russian healthcare system. A lot of outstanding physicians and scientists, who contributed significantly to the progress in medicine, worked at the University. In 2018, Sechenov University celebrates its 260th Anniversary.
About the clinic: Federal research and clinical center for specialized types of medical care and medical technologies of the FMBA of Russia (FSCC of the FMBA of Russia) is one of the largest multi — specialty medical institutions in Russia for providing specialized medical care, combining a consulting and diagnostic center and more than 40 departments.
About the clinic: Clinical hospital No. 1 (Volynskaya) of The Presidential administration of the Russian Federation is one of the oldest institutions of Kremlin medicine, which itself has more than 400 years of history. In may 1600, by Decree of Tsar Boris Godunov, a pharmacy order was created to "protect the health of the sovereign". The hospital began with a small reception House adapted for a medical institution Near the dacha of I. V. Stalin.
About the clinic: Yusupovskaya hospital is a continuity of traditions in the treatment of patients in combination with the latest achievements of modern scientific and evidence-based medicine and advanced expert experience. The Yusupov hospital carries out scientific activities — on the basis of the clinic there are scientific and practical centers aimed at solving patients' problems in a comprehensive manner.
About the clinic: P.Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute was founded on February 12, 1898. It became the oldest scientific and practical institution in Europe and the first oncology institution in Russia, where the foundations were laid for the Russian science and oncology services. The Institute is a recognized leader in providing high-tech medical care to patients with various types of cancer. The Institute performs a unique surgery, uses modern high-tech methods of diagnostics, comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation of patients.
Breast cancer is considered the most common oncopathalogy among women, accounting for almost 15% of all cancers among women. Statistics shows that in developed countries about one in 10 women encounters breast cancer.
Malignant breast tumors are one of the few oncological diseases where self-diagnostics are extremely effective. This means that a woman can often detect a tumor herself while examining her mammary glands. You need to know only a set of symptoms that accompany this disease. Indeed, about 70% of breast tumours, suspicious formations were initially detected by the patients themselves, rather than detected by a medical examination.
During the examination, priority should be given to the following parameters:
– symmetry of breasts,
– their size,
– skin color,
– skin condition.
If a suspicious symptom or formation of an incomprehensible nature is found, do not hesitate to consult a mammologist. Doctor will perform a manual breast examination and may prescribe additional procedures, such as ultrasound, mammography (radiography of the breast area), ductography (mammography with contrast agent). If suspicions of malignancy of the formation still remain, then a biopsy and blood tests for oncomarkers are carried out with subsequent examination of the cellular material.
The strategy for treating breast cancer is selected individually for each patient, taking into account factors such as tumor type, stage of breast cancer, general condition of the patient.
Sectorial breast resection is a surgical intervention that involves removing part (sector) of the gland with pathological formation. This surgery practically does not change the shape of the breast and has a good cosmetic effect.
Radical breast resection ( mastectomy ) is the removal of all breast tissue.
Lymph node metastases cause radical breast resection with regional lymphadenectomy.
Breast cancer operations can be performed with one-stage reconstruction – plastic using its own tissue and installation of an expander.
There are also delayed breast reconstruction operations with your own tissues and implant installation. For this type of reconstruction, a short-term tissue expander is placed during the mastectomy to help prepare for reconstructive surgery later. The expander is a balloon-like sac that starts off flat and is slowly expanded to the desired size to allow the skin to stretch. Once the skin over the breast area has stretched enough, a second surgery is done to remove the expander and put in the permanent implant.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can also be used as independent treatments for breast cancer if surgery is not possible for some reason.