Colon Сancer

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About a disease

Description

This is a tumor lesion of the colon (colon), often lasting for a long time without symptoms due to the absence of “external” manifestations of the disease.

In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of diseases in all economically developed countries of the world. In European countries, 130,000 new cases of colon cancer are registered each year.

Treatment tactics are mainly surgical with the inclusion of a combination of additional methods of treatment. When performing a potentially radical surgical intervention, the prognosis of the disease is favorable.

Symptoms

Colon cancer is characterized by a hidden course: up to 70% of cases of diseases are detected in the last stages.

Symptoms of colon cancer in the first stages of the disease can be expressed by painful sensations in the lower abdomen (depending on the location of the neoplasm), General malaise, weight loss, poor appetite, gas formation.

In the later stages of the disease, the following symptoms appear:

– flatulence (bloating due to increased gas formation),

– chronic discomfort in the stomach area,

– presence of blood in the stool,

– constipation or, conversely, frequent painful urges to defecate.

Diagnostics

Successful treatment of colon cancer depends on timely diagnosis. The following studies are being conducted:

– Ultrasound of the abdominal organs.

– Colonoscopy.

– Irrigoscopy

– CT and MRI.

– Blood test for cancer markers.

– Histological examination of intestinal tissues.

– Stool analysis.

Treatment

In laparoscopic-assisted colectomy, the part of the colon that has a tumor is removed. The volume of the operation is determined by the extent of the tumor spread. Nearby lymph nodes are also subject to removal. The operation is performed through several small incisions, through which a video camera and surgical instruments are inserted into the abdominal cavity.

Chemotherapy for colon cancer. Treatment consists in the introduction of toxic drugs into the body that stop the growth of cancer cells. The drug dose for each injection is calculated by the area of the skin or weight of a particular patient. For administration, a minimum toxic dosage is recommended, which gives the highest possible effect.

Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraoperative chemotherapy (HIPEC). The essence of the HIPEC technique is that immediately after a cytoreductive (i.e., aimed at removing tumor cells) operation, the patient is perfused for 60-90 minutes – the abdominal cavity is “washed” with a concentrated solution of a chemotherapy drug, heated to 42-43 °C, This leads to the targeted destruction of tumor cells, which will inevitably remain even after the most thorough surgical removal of foci and provoke a relapse, which makes this technique unique.

HIFU-therapy for colon cancer. The method is based on the effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on the tumor cells, which are welded within a few seconds under the influence of thermal and mechanical energy created at the focus point. This is a method of local influence. The method is completely invasive, i.e. it does not require incisions, punctures, has no risks of bleeding, wound suppuration, or perforation of the hollow organ. HIFU therapy is usually performed in combination with chemotherapy, but can be performed separately.

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