Esophageal Сancer

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About a disease

Description

Esophageal cancer – a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the inner shell-the mucous layer of the organ, and spreads into the thickness of the wall, sprouting one layer after another as the tumor grows, but also along the organ. Due to the fact that the width of the esophageal lumen is small, the growth of the tumor gradually covers its lumen, causing difficulty in passing food through the esophagus. Depending on the Department in which the tumor appeared, there are cancers of the thoracic Department (and its upper, middle and lower third), cervical and abdominal esophagus.
According to the results of Global Cancer Statistics from 2012, esophageal cancer ranks 1st among gastrointestinal tumors in terms of incidence and has up to 16,000 cases annually.

Symptoms

In the early stages of esophageal cancer, the patient is not concerned about anything. Symptoms begin to appear only when the tumor grows to a significant size. In this case, the patient has difficulty swallowing solid food – it is delayed in the esophagus and provokes vomiting.

Non-specific symptoms of esophageal cancer include:

– Weakness and rapid fatigue

– Reduced performance

– Irritability

– Loss of appetite and weight loss

– Rise in temperature

– Anemia

Also, with esophageal cancer, chest pain and persistent dry cough may appear, causing hoarseness of the voice.

Diagnostics

To diagnose esophageal cancer, the following methods of examination are used:

– Medical history and physical examination.

– Chest and esophagus x-ray with contrast enhancement with barium suspension.

– Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS).

– Fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FBS) .

– CT (computed tomography).

– PET-CT (positron emission computed tomography).

Treatment

Chemotherapy for esophageal cancer can be used in combination treatment as part of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (or with chemoradiotherapy according to a radical program), or used as an independent method for generalized (stage IV) esophageal cancer, as well as in situations where other treatment (surgical or radiation) is not possible due to a serious concomitant disease of the patient. Oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, fluoropyrimidines (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine), targeted drugs) and other drugs are used.

Endoscopic esophageal prosthesis (stenting) is a method of palliative treatment of narrowing of the esophagus caused by a tumor. An esophageal stent is inserted into the esophagus, which looks like a tube made of plastic or metal mesh. In the esophagus, the stent expands and supports the walls of the organ, preventing obstruction. This allows the patient to independently take food and liquid.

For esophageal cancer radiation therapy is used as an independent radical treatment as an alternative to surgical treatment or may precede surgery.

During the operation esophageal resection and reconstruction part of the esophagus is removed, the defect is filled with a segment of the intestine or a tube is formed from the stomach.

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