Pancreatic Сancer

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About a disease

Description

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of pathologically altered cells of the pancreas. The exact cause of pancreatic cancer has not yet been determined.

In the world, about 170-190 thousand cases of primary pancreatic cancer are diagnosed annually. In standardized indicators, the incidence of pancreatic cancer in European countries is 8.6 per 100,000 population (for men -9.7, for women-7.7).

Symptoms

The insidiousness of pancreatic cancer is that the initial stages of the disease are almost asymptomatic. There is no severe pain and obvious manifestations of any abnormalities in the state of health, discomfort. You should be wary and immediately visit a doctor if the following symptoms appear:

– Abdominal pain that radiates to the back;

– Jaundice of the skin;

– Sudden weight loss;

– Loss of appetite;

– Nausea and vomiting, dizziness, loose stools, weakness for no apparent reason.

Diagnostics

To diagnose pancreatic cancer, instrumental studies:

– Ultrasound examination of the pancreas

– X-ray examination, CT / MRI

– Endoscopy

– Biopsy

Treatment

The main method of surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer is pancreatoduodenal resection in the standard version (Whipple surgery). The operation is performed under general anesthesia and can be performed using an open method through an incision in the abdominal cavity and laparoscopically through small punctures in the abdominal cavity. According to the volume of resection of the gland, surrounding tissues and groups of lymph nodes, there are standard, radical and expanded pancreatoduodenal resections. The key points of surgery are the oncological validity of expanded lymphadenectomy, vascular plastic surgery, and neurodissection.

Robot-assisted pancreatoduodenal resection. The doctor can perform the operation as delicately as possible without damaging small anatomical structures. The robot’s interactive platform provides 3D visualization of the surgical field and corrects movements.

Chemotherapy and radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer lead to improved local control and overall survival in patients with a low tendency to systemic spread of the disease.

In case of stenosis (narrowing, compression) of the pancreatic ducts due to a tumor, endoscopic stenting of the ducts is performed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Segmental resection of the pancreas is performed if the exact location of the tumor is determined using imaging techniques and it can be removed with the aim of preserving the healthy part of the gland. Performed minimally invasive, laparoscopically through small incisions.

Chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. Treatment consists of injecting toxic drugs into the body that stop the growth of cancer cells. The drug dose for each injection is calculated by the area of the skin or weight of a particular patient. For administration, a minimum toxic dosage is recommended, which gives the highest possible effect.

HIFU therapy for pancreatic cancer The method is based on the effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on the tumor cells, which are welded within a few seconds under the influence of thermal and mechanical energy created at the focus point. This is a method of local influence. The method is completely invasive, i.e. it does not require incisions, punctures, has no risks of bleeding, wound suppuration, or perforation of the hollow organ. HIFU therapy is usually performed in combination with chemotherapy, but can be performed separately.

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