Thyroid Сancer

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About a disease

Description

Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignant processes in the endocrine system, it is a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, also called thyroid carcinoma. The incidence is 6 cases per 100,000 population. More than 300,000 new thyroid cancers are registered worldwide every year.
The disease can be diagnosed at any age, both in children and adults. Most thyroid cancers are diagnosed in patients over 30 years of age. The disease is about 3 times more likely to be diagnosed in women than in men.

Symptoms

In the vast majority of cases, the tumor process is completely asymptomatic and is detected randomly in the form of a node in the thyroid gland in the ultrasound examination and less often at the examination of the doctor or yourself. The function of the thyroid gland is almost always preserved.
Possible symptoms include thyroid cancer:

– The appearance of a formation in the lower third of the neck or an increase in lymph nodes of the neck;

-a change in the voice, a change in the strength of the voice;

-challenged breathing;

-the appearance of pain in the lower third of the neck or chest

Diagnosis

-Thyroid ulcers

-Fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodes

-Investigation of thyroid hormones

Treatment

The main method of thyroid cancer treatment is surgical treatment. Patients undergo a thyroidectomy (complete thyroid removal) or partial thyroid removal. Hemithyroidectomy is the removal of half (one share) of the thyroid gland. The decision about the scope of surgery is made by the endocrinologist, individually in each situation, taking into account the morphological variant of carcinoma and the prevalence of tumor process. In addition to interventions on the thyroid gland in a number of patients it is necessary to perform lymphodysection – surgical removal of lymph nodes and fatty tissue in a certain anatomical zone. Videoassisted operations are performed to remove the fraction or the entire thyroid gland through a 1.5-2 cm long skin incision.

Robotic-assisted thyroidectomy. The doctor can perform the operation as delicately as possible without damaging the small anatomical structures. The robot’s interactive platform provides 3D visualization of the surgical field and corrects movements.

After complete removal of the thyroid tissue, it is possible to perform radioiodine therapy. Patient takes special capsules with radioactive iodine to ensure good treatment result.

Thyroid cancer treatment with chemotherapy is also carried out. The treatment consists of introducing toxic drugs into the body that stop the growth of cancer cells. The dose of the drug for each injection is calculated by the skin area or weight of the individual patient. A minimally toxic dosage is recommended for administration, giving the highest possible effect.

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