Bladder Cancer

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About a disease

Description

Bladder cancer is one of the few cancers with known risk factors. The probability is increased by working with aniline dyes, contact with gasoline combustion products, chronic inflammation of the lining of the bladder (cystitis), the presence of other cancerous tumors, and genetic predisposition. Smokers get sick 5 times more often, with the experience of smoking, the risk increases. The peak incidence is between the ages of 50 and 80.

Symptoms

Bladder tumors are characterized by slow development and no symptoms in the early stages of the malignant process. You can suspect bladder cancer when blood appears in the urine, unpleasant sensations during urination and increasing calls to it. Such complaints should be a reason for immediate contact with a doctor who will reveal oncopathology in a timely manner, which will significantly improve the prognosis of treatment.

 

Diagnostics

– Sonic examination of pelvic organs.

– Performing excretory urography.

– Invention of general urine analysis, as well as urine examination on cytology.

– Cystoscopy

– Taking blood tests for cancer cells.

Treatment

The method of treating bladder cancer is selected individually for each patient, taking into account the stage of oncopathology, the general condition of the patient, the presence of metastases and comorbidities.

Transurethral resection of bladder cancer (TURBT) . With transurethral resection of the bladder, the tumor is removed through the urethra endoscopically by an electrical loop. The bladder walls are then treated with a ball electrode to stop bleeding and completely destroy the tumor cells. Extract – 2-3 days after surgery.

Laser enucleation of bladder cancer (ThuLEBT) . A technically laser operation is similar to a TURBT. A tool with a diameter with a ball handle rod is started through the urethra under sparing spinal anesthesia. After cutoff, the tumor is removed with special forceps along the lumen of the endoscopic instrument. advantage: the laser carefully cauterizes the vessels and has a good hemostatic effect.

Bladder removal surgery (cystectomy) with reconstruction . In deep germination, when the tumor strucks the deep muscle layers and the surrounding organ fat, cystectomy – removal of the bladder is indicated. When affected by metastases of lymph nodes and adjacent organs, cystectomy is accompanied by their removal. Cystectomy is performed laparoscopically, without a cavity incision. Endoscopic equipment is started through several punctures in the abdomen. After removal of the organ, plastic is performed – an artificial bladder is formed from the intestine (intestinal conduction) or uretherocutaneostomy is carried out.

Partial cystectomy is the removal of part of the bladder. The readings are performed in a number of modifications.

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