Prostate Cancer

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About a disease

Description

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor, which mostly often affects men over 50 years old. Such a tumor is characterized by slow development, but at the same time rapid spread to nearby organs (hip bones, pelvis, spine, etc.).

If the tumor does not go beyond the prostate, then it is completely curable. If metastases enter other organs and tissues, the oncological process can be suspended, prolonging the patient’s life for years and decades.

Symptoms

Among the first signs of prostate cancer are:

– rapid weight loss;

– urination difficulties;

– frequent and painful urination;

– pain in perineum, back, scrotum, pelvis;

– presence of blood impurities in urine and semen.

Diagnostics

The following diagnostic measures are assigned:

– Prostate biopsy;

– CT (computed tomography);

– PET (positron emission tomography) with CT;

– MRI;

– Prostate ultrasound;

– Radioisotope studies;

– Cystoscopy.

Treatment

The method of treating prostate cancer is selected individually for each patient, taking into account the stage of oncopathology, the general condition of the patient, the presence of metastases and concomitant diseases.

Laparoscopic nerve-sparing prostatectomy. The endoscopic instrument is inserted through several punctures in the lower abdomen. The prostate is cut off, crushed and evacuated with a special container.

Robotic-assisted prostatectomy da Vinci. The doctor has the ability to perform surgery to remove the prostate delicately, without damaging the small anatomical structures. The interactive robot platform provides 3D visualization of the surgical field and corrects movements.

Brachytherapy. Impact of directed neutron irradiation on a tumor. Titanium capsules with a radioactive element (Iodine-125) are “dropped” into the tumor with special needles according to a computer-calculated scheme. It is considered a radical treatment for prostate cancer.

Radiation therapy. The use of radiation therapy is advisable for patients with localized prostate cancer, in the absence of a metastatic process.

HIFU ablation. Impact on the tumor with focused high-intensity ultrasound. Recommended for patients with severe concomitant diseases.

Cryoblation. Impact on the tumor with cold (argon up to -40-60 ° C) and warm (helium) gases. As a result of the change in temperature, the membranes of cancer cells rupture. Gas is injected through cryoprobes – special needles with a knitting needle diameter. Recommended for patients with severe somatic status, when general anesthesia is difficult or impossible due to severe concomitant diseases. For example, heart or lung disease.

Open prostatectomy. The prostate gland is removed through an incision in the lower abdomen (retropubic prostatectomy) or through an incision between the scrotum and anus (perineal prostatectomy). As a rule, an open operation is used involuntarily. For example, with severe sudden bleeding during laparoscopic surgery.

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